Myofacial pain disorders
These conditions are related to pain in the soft tissue as opposed to bones, discs or ligaments. Commonly as a result of muscle overuse or injury, this condition is often characterised by painful trigger points within the muscle and may involve adjacent tendons and ligaments. Trigger points are commonly found in the postural muscles of the neck, shoulder and pelvic girdles. Symptoms can include pain and fatigue within an area and may be associated with certain movements. There may be an association with stress and exhaustion. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents can play an important role in the management of myofacial pain, although long term they are potentially deleterious to tissue healing. If pain is persistent, antineuropathics can also be helpful. Topical treatments applied to the skin may be helpful as well as ultrasound-guided pain injections. In all cases, treatment is best followed up with physiotherapy.