The shoulder is one of the most elaborate joints in the body. It is formed by numerous bones, tendons, ligaments and muscles. It is the most flexible joint in the body and allows us to throw, climb, hug, dab and loads more. Because the shoulder joint is so flexible, it is very prone to injury […]

Why do I need arthroscopic shoulder stabilisation surgery? The reason someone may need arthroscopic shoulder stabilisation is that their shoulder has become unstable due to an injury. This injury may have occurred as a result of a fall or running into something. This is quite common in contact sports, for example. This injury can loosen […]

The patella is your kneecap. It is one of three bones that makes up the knee. All of these bones have cartilage on their mating surfaces. It is this cartilage that allows them to move smoothly when you bend and straighten your knee. The patella is also enclosed by a tendon. This tendon connects the […]

Your hip is formed by a ball and socket joint. Usually the ball of the joint moves smoothly within the socket. However, if a problem in the socket rim or the ball interferes with its movement, it can stop this smooth motion. This is known as a hip impingement or femoro acetabular impingement if you […]

Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a condition that affects the joint between your kneecap and your thigh bone. This joint helps you bend and straighten your leg. As you do this, your kneecap moves smoothly back and forth inside the groove in your lower femur. Patellofemoral syndrome is often called runners knee as it is quite […]

Dupuytren’s contracture is a thickening of the usually elastic-like tissue beneath the skin of the palm and fingers. This tissue is called fascia, and it contains fibres that run from the palm into the fingers. In Dupuytren’s contracture, these fibres contract and cause the fingers to curl forwards. In extreme cases of this condition, it […]

Disc degeneration disease isn’t really a disease, this is just the name given to the normal changes that occur in your spine as you age. Your spinal discs act as shock absorbers for the spine. They are soft on the inside, with a hard shell. They allow the spine to bend, flex and twist. Disc […]

A total disc replacement is not suitable for everyone with back pain. It is a back surgery that should only be considered when the more conservative back pain treatments have shown no sign of working. Your doctor may have recommended a total disc replacement, which may be why you are reading this article. If that’s […]

Spinal fusion is an operation used to connect two or more vertebrae permanently. This connection stops the vertebrae moving. Spinal fusion surgery involves techniques that mimic the natural healing process of the bone. During the surgery, the surgeon will place bone or bone-like material between the two vertebrae. They will then use metal plates, rods […]

Bone spurs are a growth of extra bone located on the heel. They tend to build up over a long period of time. A bone spur is about 1.25cm in length and, although they don’t cause pain themselves, they are typically more common in people who have some form of heel pain, like plantar fasciitis. […]

Achilles tendon ruptures are typically due to an overstretching of the tendon. This can tear the tendon partially or completely. Typically, this type of injury happens to people playing sports, but it can happen to anyone. An injury to the Achilles tendon can mean that walking is extremely painful. The symptoms of Achilles tendon ruptures […]

What is ankle fusion? Ankle fusion is a type of surgery that’s typically done once an ankle joint becomes worn out and painful as a result of wear. Degenerative arthritis causes the wear within the ankle joint. The most frequent cause of degenerative arthritis is an ankle fracture. Some years after an ankle fracture, the […]